Hernia - Types, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatments
Category: General & Laparoscopic Surgery
Hernia is a medical condition that occurs when an organ or fatty tissue pushes through a weak spot or tear in the surrounding muscle or connective tissue. This can result in a bulge or lump that is often noticeable and may cause discomfort or pain.
It may or may not show symptoms, like pain or discomfort. Most hernias will ultimately require a surgical repair. Their symptoms become prominent gradually with your age and with regular wear & tear of your muscles. It can also occur due to surgery, injury, or birth disorder. You can avail this surgical treatment from the Patna best hospital to determine how severe it is and how quickly it’s likely to progress. Availing laparoscopic hernia surgery is recommended since it is a minimally invasive technique that allows a laparoscopic surgeon to heal the damaged area through multiple tiny incisions (approx. a half-centimeter), through a nonabsorbable web to encompass the weak area.
Here's an overview of the types, causes, diagnosis, and treatments of hernias:
Types of Hernias:
- Inguinal Hernia: This is the most common type of hernia and occurs when a portion of the intestine or abdominal tissue pushes through the inguinal canal in the groin area. It is more common in men than women.
- Femoral Hernia: Similar to an inguinal hernia, a femoral hernia also occurs in the groin area but is more common in women. The intestine or abdominal tissue pushes through the femoral canal.
- Incisional Hernia: This type of hernia occurs at the site of a previous surgical incision. The intestine or abdominal tissue protrudes through the weakened scar tissue. If you have previously undergone surgical incision and encounter any symptoms of Hernia then you must visit the best hospital in Patna.
- Umbilical Hernia: An umbilical hernia occurs around the belly button or navel area. It is common in infants but may also occur in adults, especially in women who have had multiple pregnancies.
- Hiatal Hernia: This type of hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach pushes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity. Hiatal hernias are associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Hernias can occur due to a combination of factors that contribute to increased pressure on the abdominal wall or weakened areas of the muscles or connective tissues.
The primary causes of hernias include:
- Muscle Weakness: Hernias often develop in areas where the muscles of the abdominal wall are weak or compromised. This weakness may be present from birth (congenital) or may develop over time due to factors like aging or injury. If you are severely facing muscle weakness then you can see a laparoscopic surgeon in Patna.
- Heavy Lifting or Straining: Activities that involve heavy lifting or straining can increase intra-abdominal pressure, putting stress on the muscles and connective tissues. Over time, this can lead to the development of hernias, especially in people who have weak abdominal muscles.
- Chronic Coughing or Sneezing: Chronic and forceful coughing or sneezing, as seen in conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or whooping cough, can place additional pressure on the abdominal muscles and increase the risk of hernia formation.
- Obesity and Sudden Weight Gain: Excessive body weight and sudden weight gain can put extra strain on the abdominal wall, potentially leading to hernias.
- Pregnancy and Childbirth: The growing uterus during pregnancy can place pressure on the abdominal muscles and weaken them, making pregnant women more susceptible to hernias. Additionally, childbirth can cause muscle and connective tissue damage, contributing to the development of hernias. If you encounter any such sign during pregnancy and childbirth, make sure to visit the best laparoscopic surgeon in Patna.
- Chronic Constipation and Straining during Bowel Movements: Straining during bowel movements due to chronic constipation can create pressure in the abdominal region, increasing the risk of hernias.
- Previous Abdominal Surgery: Surgical incisions weaken the abdominal muscles, and a hernia can develop at the site of a previous surgery, especially if the incision does not heal properly.
- Genetic Predisposition: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to developing hernias due to inherent weaknesses in their connective tissues or abdominal muscles.
While the factors mentioned above can increase the risk of hernias, not everyone with these risk factors will develop a hernia. Additionally, certain types of hernias, such as inguinal hernias, are more common in men, while others, like umbilical hernias, are more prevalent in women and infants.
Diagnosis of Hernia:
Diagnosing a hernia typically involves a physical examination by a laparoscopic surgeon. During the examination from the super speciality hospital in Patna, the laparoscopic surgeon will look for signs of a hernia, including a noticeable bulge or lump in the affected area. They may also ask you to cough or strain, as this can make the hernia more prominent.
If a hernia is suspected, the laparoscopic surgeon may use imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis and assess the size and location of the hernia.
Common imaging methods include:
- Ultrasound: Ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of the internal structures. It is a non-invasive and painless method often used to visualize hernias.
- CT Scan (Computed Tomography): CT scan combines X-rays and computer technology to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body, including the location and extent of the hernia.
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of the body's internal structures, helping to evaluate the hernia. You can approach Apollo hospital in Patna that uses advanced imaging methods to treat Hernia.
Treatments of Hernia:
The main treatment for hernias is surgical repair. The procedure aims to push the herniated tissue back into its proper place and strengthen the weakened area of the abdominal wall. The type of hernia repair depends on factors such as the size and location of the hernia, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Common hernia repair methods include:
- Open Hernia Repair: In this traditional approach, the surgeon makes an incision near the hernia site, pushes the herniated tissue back into place, and then reinforces the weakened area with sutures or a surgical mesh.
- Laparoscopic Hernia Repair: Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach where the surgeon makes small incisions and uses a laparoscope (a thin, lighted tube with a camera) to guide the repair. The surgeon inserts the mesh through the small incisions and places it over the hernia. Your hernia treatment will include the laparoscopic surgery cost in Patna and other treatment costs.
- Robotic Hernia Repair: Robotic-assisted surgery is a variation of laparoscopic repair where the surgeon uses robotic arms to perform the procedure with more precision.
- Tension-Free Repair: Most hernia repairs involve using a synthetic mesh to reinforce the weakened area, reducing the tension on the repaired site and lowering the risk of recurrence.
For small or asymptomatic hernias, a "watchful waiting" approach may be taken. In such cases, the hernia is monitored regularly, and surgery is only recommended if it becomes larger or causes symptoms.
It's essential to undergo hernia repair surgery if recommended by a laparoscopic surgeon, as untreated hernias can lead to complications, such as obstruction or strangulation, which can be life-threatening. Surgical repair offers an effective and lasting solution to hernias and can help prevent future complications. Recovery from hernia repair surgery is generally well-tolerated, but it's essential to follow the laparoscopic surgeon's post-operative instructions for optimal healing and reduced risk of complications. Make sure to consider the laparoscopic surgery cost in Patna in your budget.
Most symptoms of Hernia aren’t serious; however, they can be. Moreover, they can be more serious with time. Note that a hernia gets serious if it gets stuck within the hole which it’s pushed across and couldn’t go back in. If you encounter prominent hernia pain, it is best to visit a laparoscopic surgeon. In case your hernia modifies colour, becomes numb, or creates symptoms like nausea, fever and vomiting, you must get medical attention immediately. Laparoscopic surgery is recommended for hernia treatment since it creates less pain and allows patients to recover faster than that with open repair surgery.