Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)

PCOD, or Polycystic Ovarian Disease, is a prevalent condition impacting women aged 12 to 45 years, affecting approximately 5-10% of this demographic. This hormonal imbalance can lead to challenges during menstrual cycles and difficulties with conception.


PCOD, also known as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), is a hormonal disorder resulting in enlarged ovaries containing multiple small cysts. This condition is common among reproductive-age women. It involves excessive production of the male hormone, causing issues such as irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles, acne, weight gain, and excessive body hair. PCOS can also hinder regular follicle development and egg release, affecting fertility. 

The symptoms of PCOD may appear during a woman's initial menstrual cycle, while others might recognize them as they worsen, often accompanied by significant weight gain or fertility struggles. 

Common indicators include:

·        Irregular periods: Menstrual cycles become infrequent or prolonged due to the absence of ovulation.
·        Heavy menstrual bleeding: Irregularity leads to the buildup of uterine lining, resulting in heavier periods.
·        Excessive hair growth: Increased male hormone levels cause unwanted facial and body hair.
·        Acne: Hormonal imbalance contributes to acne development.
·        Weight gain: PCOD can lead to weight gain and hinder weight loss efforts.
·        Hair thinning: Scalp hair may thin, resembling male pattern baldness.
·        Skin darkening: Certain areas like the neck, groin, or under breasts may darken.
·        Other symptoms : Headaches and difficulties conceiving. 

Diagnosis involves medical evaluation and tests such as sugar level assessment, thyroid function tests, and ultrasounds to rule out other conditions. 

The causes of PCOD aren't pinpointed, but contributing factors include:

·        Abnormal androgen production: Ovaries produce excessive male hormones, leading to symptoms like hirsutism and acne.
·        Genetic predisposition: PCOS can have a genetic correlation.
·        Insulin overproduction: Insulin resistance results in elevated male hormone production, contributing to symptoms.
·        Low-grade inflammation: Inflammation prompts increased androgen production.
·        Unhealthy lifestyle: Poor lifestyle habits can contribute. 

PCOD Complications:

·        Challenges with Fertility: Difficulty conceiving or infertility.
·        Pregnancy Risks: Increased chances of miscarriage and premature births.
·        Endometrial Cancer Risk: Elevated risk of developing endometrial cancer.
·        Sleep Apnea: Potential for sleep apnea issues.
·        Emotional Impact: Susceptibility to depression.
·        Obesity-Related Health Concerns: Greater likelihood of obesity-related conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart ailments.

When to Consult a Doctor:

·        Reach out to a gynecologist if you encounter irregular periods or other menstrual symptoms.
·        Seek medical advice if you're struggling with unexplained weight gain.
·        Consult a doctor if you notice unwanted hair growth on your face and body.
·        If attempts to conceive have been unsuccessful for over 12 months, contact your doctor promptly. 

Request for an appointment at Big Apollo Spectra Hospital, Patna, by calling 0612-3540100. 

Early intervention is crucial to managing PCOD's complications, including infertility, miscarriage, endometrial cancer risk, sleep apnea, depression, and obesity-related health problems. 

Treatment involves lifestyle changes, including weight management, regular exercise, and dietary adjustments. Medications can regulate menstrual cycles and hormonal imbalances. Birth control pills might also be prescribed under medical guidance. 

In conclusion, PCOS is a common condition among women that impacts menstrual cycles, fertility, and hormonal balance. Lifestyle adjustments and appropriate medical guidance can help manage its effects.