Cysts: Causes, Types, and Treatment

A cyst is a closed sac-like structure that can develop anywhere in the body, containing air, liquid, or semi-solid substances. While most cysts are benign and harmless, some could be cancerous. Cysts can vary in size and may or may not resolve on their own, depending on the type and location.


Definition of Cysts:

A cyst is an enclosed sac-like formation with a distinct wall, separate from surrounding tissue. It can be filled with gas, liquid, semi-solid material, or pus, which is a thick liquid containing dead white blood cells. Cysts can emerge on various body parts due to factors such as injury, genetic conditions, or blockages. They can also be associated with conditions like Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD). 

Varieties of Cysts:

Cysts can arise for different reasons, leading to various types, some of which include:

·        Cystic acne: Caused by trapped bacteria, oils, and dead skin under skin pores, resulting in a pus-filled sac. This is a severe form of acne.
·        Branchial cleft cyst: A congenital defect that forms on the neck or near the collarbone in infants and children, often requiring surgical removal.
·        Mucous cyst: Develops on the lip or in the mouth due to trapped saliva glands.
·        Epidermoid cyst: Contains keratin, a protein, and is typically found on the head, neck, or genitals.
·        Sebaceous cyst: Filled with sebum and forms near sebaceous glands responsible for skin and hair oils. 

Causes of Cyst Formation: Cysts can develop for various reasons, including:

·        Injury
·        Rupture of blood vessels
·        Genetic predisposition
·        Blockage of skin pores
·        Inflammatory conditions 

Symptoms of Cyst Formation:

Cyst symptoms depend on their type and location. Patients might notice a lump or sac-like structure. Cysts can also form internally and may require imaging scans for diagnosis. While most cysts are painless, some could cause swelling, redness, or discomfort around the affected area. 

When to Seek Medical Attention in Patna:

Medical attention is needed if a cyst becomes painful or swollen, as this could indicate an infection. Even painless cysts should be evaluated by a healthcare provider to determine if they are cancerous or could lead to complications. 

Treatment at Big Apollo Spectra Hospital, Patna:

Cyst treatment should not be delayed, as it could lead to infections. The appropriate treatment depends on the cyst type and size. Some cysts may heal on their own over time, while complex cases require medical intervention. Treatment options include draining the cyst using surgical methods, complete removal, and medication to reduce swelling and inflammation. Cysts could also be symptomatic of underlying conditions like PCOS or PKD, necessitating treatment for the associated disease. 


Cysts are sac-like formations that can develop due to various reasons. While many cysts are harmless and may resolve naturally, seeking medical evaluation is essential, especially in serious cases, to ensure timely and appropriate management.