Breast cancer is the most
prevalent malignancy affecting women, ranking second only to skin cancer. While
it can impact both genders, it predominantly targets women. The integration of
advanced medical insights, early detection methods, personalized treatment
regimens, and an enhanced understanding of its causative factors has
significantly elevated survival rates for breast cancer patients. In Patna,
Bihar, a proactive approach is adopted to diagnose, treat, and prevent breast
cancer, highlighting the importance of comprehensive healthcare.
Breast cancer arises from the
unchecked proliferation of cells within breast tissues, often spurred by genetic
mutations. This rapid cellular growth leads to the development of cancerous
masses or tumours. These tumours can originate within the lobules
(milk-producing glands), ducts (pathways for milk transport), or fibrous
connective tissues of the breast. Notably, lobules contribute to milk
production, while ducts facilitate the movement of milk from lobules to the
Physicians classify breast cancer
stages based on factors such as tumour size and whether it has metastasized to
nearby lymph nodes or distant organs:
Stage 0: Known as
ductal carcinoma, this early stage confines cancerous cells to breast ducts.
Stage 1: Tumours
measuring up to 2 centimetres.
Stage 2: Tumours
measuring up to 2 centimetres with nearby node involvement, or 2-5 centimetres
without lymph node engagement.
Stage 3: Tumours
measuring 5 cm with spread to multiple lymph nodes, or larger than 5 cm with
limited lymph node involvement.
Stage 4: Advanced
stage characterized by tumour spread to organs like the liver, brain, lungs, or
Breast Cancer Symptoms
Early-stage breast cancer may not
manifest overt symptoms, underscoring the importance of diagnostic tests.
Common symptoms include:
Presence of lumps or thickened areas in the breast.
Nipple discharge unrelated to breastfeeding.
Bloody nipple discharge.
Inverted (inward-turned) nipple.
Swelling or lump beneath the armpit.
Rash around the nipple.
Changes in breast shape.
Scaling or peeling of breast skin.
Redness or pitting of breast skin.
Breast cancer results from
abnormal cell growth that outpaces the body's natural regulatory mechanisms.
Contributing factors include:
Age: Advanced age escalates risk.
Genetics: Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or TP53 genes
Dense Breast Tissue: Greater density increases
Obesity: Overweight individuals face an elevated
Alcohol Consumption: Higher alcohol intake
correlates with heightened risk.
When encountering breast or
underarm lumps, seeking medical consultation is paramount. Screening, including
mammograms, aids in confirming the presence of cancerous cells. For Patna, Bihar residents, Big
Apollo Spectra Hospital offers expert medical care. To schedule an appointment, call 0612-3540100.
Cancer Treatment Options at Big Apollo Spectra Hospital, Patna
The treatment of breast cancer at
Big Apollo Spectra Hospital, Patna, is meticulously tailored to factors such as
cancer stage, the patient's medical history, and individual preferences. A
range of effective treatments is available to address the diverse needs of
patients. These treatments include:
Surgery: Surgery plays a pivotal role in managing
breast cancer. The choice of surgical intervention depends on the diagnosed
cancer stage. The following surgical procedures are commonly employed:
Lumpectomy: This procedure involves the surgical
removal of the tumor along with a portion of surrounding healthy tissue.
Lumpectomy aims to prevent the spread of cancerous cells to nearby lymph nodes
Mastectomy: In cases where the extent of cancer
requires more comprehensive intervention, a mastectomy is performed. During a
mastectomy, various components like lobules, ducts, areola, nipple, fatty
tissue, or even a portion of the skin may be removed, as deemed necessary by
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy constitutes a potent
treatment strategy for breast cancer. Oncologists prescribe specific drugs that
are designed to target and destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be
particularly effective for tumors that have the potential to spread or those
that have already spread to other areas of the body.
Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy involves the
controlled delivery of targeted doses of radiation to the affected area. This
treatment modality is designed to eliminate any remaining cancerous cells
following surgery or to shrink tumors before surgery. Radiation therapy is a
precise and focused approach that aims to destroy cancer cells while minimizing
damage to healthy tissues.
Hormone Blocking Therapy: Hormone receptor-positive
breast cancers are susceptible to hormone blocking therapy. This treatment
approach involves the use of medications that disrupt the hormonal signals
promoting the growth of cancer cells. By blocking these signals, the
progression of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer can be inhibited.
At Big Apollo Spectra Hospital,
Patna, patients embark on a treatment journey guided by a multidisciplinary
team of medical experts. Through thorough assessment, comprehensive
diagnostics, and meticulous planning, the most appropriate treatment approach
is determined. The patient's well-being, preferences, and goals are taken into
account throughout the treatment process.
Early detection and timely
medical intervention significantly improve breast cancer prognosis. Adapting a
proactive approach to healthcare, along with making positive lifestyle changes,
can mitigate the risk of breast cancer and its complications. The comprehensive
services at Big Apollo Spectra Hospital, Patna, serve as a beacon of hope and
healing for those confronting breast cancer.