Detailed Guide: What is Orthopaedic? And its types & treatments.

Detailed Guide: What is Orthopaedic? And its types & treatments.

  Category: Blog     Date: 15-06-2023  

What is orthopaedic?

Orthopaedics is a medical specialty focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders related to the musculoskeletal system. Orthopaedic doctors, also known as orthopaedic surgeons, are trained to address a wide range of musculoskeletal issues, including fractures, arthritis, sports injuries, spinal disorders, and congenital deformities. 

They employ various treatment methods, such as medication, physical therapy, bracing, casting, and surgical procedures, to restore function, alleviate pain, and enhance the overall well-being of their patients. In this article, you will explore the details about its types, causes, and treatments available at Apollo hospital in Patna.

What are the types of orthopaedic surgeries?

Orthopaedic surgeries are surgical procedures performed to treat musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, or disorders affecting the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and other structures of the musculoskeletal system. These surgeries aim to alleviate pain, restore function, improve mobility, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients. 

Orthopaedic surgeries can be performed by the best orthopedic doctor in Patna using various techniques and approaches, ranging from traditional open surgeries to minimally invasive procedures. Also, the specific type of orthopaedic surgery recommended depends on the nature and severity of the condition being treated. Some common types of orthopaedic surgeries include:

  1. Joint Replacement Surgeries: These surgeries involve removing damaged or arthritic joints, such as the hip, knee, or shoulder joint, and replacing them with artificial implants made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials.

  1. Fracture Fixation: Fracture fixation surgeries aim to stabilize and align broken bones using techniques like open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or external fixation. Implants like plates, screws, or rods may be used to hold the fractured bones in place during the healing process.

  1. Arthroscopic Surgeries: Arthroscopic procedures are minimally invasive surgeries performed using an arthroscope, a small camera instrument inserted through small incisions. This allows the surgeon to visualize and treat various joint conditions, such as cartilage damage, ligament tears, or inflamed synovial tissue.

  1. Spine Surgeries: Spine surgeries address conditions affecting the vertebral column, such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, spinal deformities (scoliosis), or spinal fractures. These surgeries aim to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves, stabilize the spine, or correct deformities.

  1. Ligament and Tendon Repairs: These surgeries involve repairing or reconstructing damaged ligaments or tendons, commonly performed for conditions like anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, rotator cuff tears, or Achilles tendon ruptures.

  1. Bone Deformity Corrections: Surgeries to correct bone deformities, such as limb length discrepancies, angular deformities, or congenital abnormalities, may involve procedures like osteotomies (cutting and realigning bones) or external fixation devices.

  1. Hand and Wrist Surgeries: Surgeries performed on the hand and wrist address conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, fractures, or conditions affecting the tendons, nerves, or joints of the hand.

  1. Foot and Ankle Surgeries: These surgeries focus on conditions affecting the foot and ankle, including bunions, hammertoes, plantar fasciitis, ankle instability, or fractures. Procedures may involve joint fusion, tendon repairs, or realignment surgeries.

  1. Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeries: Pediatric orthopaedic surgeries are specialized procedures performed on children to address conditions like developmental dysplasia of the hip, clubfoot, scoliosis, or limb length discrepancies.

Orthopaedic surgeries are indicated when conservative treatments fail to provide adequate relief or when the condition significantly impairs an individual's daily activities, causes chronic pain, or affects their overall well-being. Indications may include:

  1. Degenerative Joint Diseases: Conditions such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis that cause joint damage and pain.

  2. Traumatic Injuries: Fractures, dislocations, or severe ligament/tendon injuries resulting from accidents or sports-related activities.

  3. Joint Instability: Joint instability or recurrent joint dislocations that significantly affect mobility and function.

  4. Spinal Disorders: Spinal deformities (scoliosis, kyphosis), herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or spinal cord compression.

  5. Sports Injuries: Severe sports-related injuries affecting the bones, joints, ligaments, or tendons.

  6. Tumors: Surgical intervention may be required to remove or treat bone or soft tissue tumors.

Thorough preoperative preparation is essential to ensuring a successful surgery and optimizing patient outcomes. This may involve:

  1. Medical Evaluation: Comprehensive assessment of the patient's overall health, including medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests.

  2. Medication Management: Adjustments or temporary discontinuation of certain medications that may interfere with surgery or anesthesia

  3. Pre-operative Instructions: Guidelines regarding fasting, medications to be taken prior to surgery, and specific instructions about personal hygiene and clothing.

  4. Preoperative Testing: Necessary laboratory tests, imaging studies (X-rays, MRI, CT scans), or electrocardiograms (ECG) to evaluate the patient's condition.

  5. Lifestyle Modifications: Recommendations to quit smoking, adjust dietary habits, or lose weight if necessary.

Orthopaedic surgeries employ various techniques and procedures based on the specific condition being treated. These may involve traditional open surgeries or minimally invasive approaches. 

The best orthopaedic hospital in Patna uses specialized instruments and technologies to perform procedures such as joint replacements, fracture fixation, arthroscopy, spinal fusion, ligament and tendon repairs, osteotomies, or joint reconstructions. Some commonly used techniques include:

  1. Open surgery: a traditional surgical approach involving a large incision to directly access and visualize the affected area.

  2. Minimally Invasive Surgery: Utilizes smaller incisions, specialized instruments, and advanced imaging technologies to perform surgery with less tissue disruption and faster recovery.

  3. Arthroscopy A minimally invasive procedure where an arthroscope is inserted through small incisions to diagnose and treat joint conditions.

  4. Joint replacement involves removing damaged joint surfaces and replacing them with artificial implants made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials.

  5. Internal Fixation: Utilizing screws, plates, or rods to stabilize fractures or reconstruct damaged bones.

Role of Anesthesia:

Anesthesia plays a crucial role in orthopaedic surgeries to ensure patient comfort and safety. Anesthesiologists determine the appropriate anesthesia technique, which can include:

  1. General anesthesia renders the patient unconscious and pain-free throughout the surgery.

  2. Regional Anesthesia: Blocks sensation in specific regions of the body, such as epidural or spinal anesthesia for lower limb surgeries.

  3. Local Anesthesia with Sedation: Numbs the surgical site while the patient remains conscious but relaxed under sedation.

The surgical team comprises not only the orthopaedic surgeon but also nurses, surgical technicians, and other healthcare professionals working collaboratively to provide comprehensive care.

Risks and Complications:

Like any surgical procedure, orthopaedic surgeries carry potential risks and complications. These may include:

  1. Infection: risk of surgical site infection or deep-seated infections.

  2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during or after surgery.

  3. Blood Clots: Formation of blood clots in the veins (deep vein thrombosis) or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

  4. Nerve or Vascular Damage: Potential injury to nerves or blood vessels during surgery.

  5. Anaesthesia-related complications: adverse reactions to anesthesia or respiratory problems.

  6. Implant Failure: Possible complications related to joint implants, such as loosening, dislocation, or allergic reactions.

However, it's important to note that the majority of patients experience successful outcomes with minimal complications.

Postoperative Care and Rehabilitation:

Postoperative care and rehabilitation are vital for optimal recovery and long-term outcomes. This includes:

  1. Pain Management: Administration of pain medications and techniques to control post-operative pain.

  2. Wound Care: Proper cleaning and dressing of surgical incisions to prevent infection.

  3. Physical Therapy: Rehabilitation exercises and therapies to restore strength, flexibility, and mobility.

  4. Assistive Devices: Use of crutches, walkers, or braces to aid mobility during the recovery phase.

  5. Follow-up Appointments: Regular follow-up visits with the orthopaedic surgeon are necessary to monitor progress and address any concerns.

The rehabilitation process is tailored to each patient's needs and aims to restore strength, mobility, and functionality.

Recovery after orthopaedic surgery varies depending on the procedure and individual factors. Physical therapy and rehabilitation play a critical role in restoring function and mobility. Patients can typically expect reduced pain, improved range of motion, enhanced quality of life, and the ability to engage in activities that were previously limited by their musculoskeletal condition.

Advancements and Emerging Technologies:

The field of orthopaedic surgery continues to evolve with advancements in surgical techniques, implant designs, and technologies. These include:

  1. Minimally Invasive Techniques: Continued development of minimally invasive surgical approaches, such as robotic-assisted surgeries or computer-assisted navigation systems, allows for more precise and less invasive procedures.

  2. Biologics and Regenerative Medicine: Use of biological substances, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), stem cells, or growth factors, to enhance tissue healing and regeneration.

  3. 3D Printing: Application of 3D printing technology to create patient-specific implants, surgical guides, or models for preoperative planning.

  4. Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR): Integration of VR and AR technologies for surgical planning, simulation, and education.

  5. Advanced Implant Materials: Development of new implant materials with improved durability, longevity, and biocompatibility.

These advancements aim to further enhance surgical precision, patient outcomes, and the overall patient experience.


Orthopaedic surgeries encompass a wide range of procedures aimed at addressing musculoskeletal conditions and improving patients' quality of life. Understanding the different types of orthopaedic surgeries, their indications, preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, post-operative care, risks, complications, expected outcomes, and advancements can empower patients and healthcare providers alike. 

By staying informed about the latest developments in orthopaedic surgery, individuals can make well-informed decisions and confidently navigate the journey to recovery. You can search for the best bone doctor near me and book an appointment at the Big Apollo Spectra Hospital in Patna.

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